IELTS General Reading Exercise 2- Section 1 (Question 1-13)

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SECTION 1
Read and answer the questions Q.1-13

READING PASSAGE 1

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.

EVOLUTION OF INSECTS

A While the Paleozoic era is referred to as the age of trilobites, modern times is known as the age of insects. Records of insect fossils go back about 400 million years to the lower Devonian period. During the Carboniferous era, the winged forms or Pterygota went through major radiation- a process in which a group of organisms diversify rapidly into different forms due to a change in environment. The Endopterygota underwent another radiation in the Permian period. The Insect orders of modern times which were survivors of the mass extinctions evolved to the Triassic Era. The Jurassic period saw the appearance of modern insect families, and it is probable that further diversification took place in the Cretaceous era. The Jurassic period has been a significant source of information because as many as 150 important sites with beetle fossils have been discovered, most of these located in Eastern Europe and North Asia. The number of sites from North and South America and Africa from the same period are, however, smaller and have yet to be investigated thoroughly.

B Insect evolution is characterised by rapid adaptation with high rates of fecundity due to specific pressures employed by the environment. As a result of quick radiations and with the arrival of new species, insects utilise available features of the environment they inhabit. This activity persists even in the modern age. Evolution of flowering plants and the evolution of insects is interrelated. Around 20% of surviving insects depend on nectar or pollen from flowers as their primary food source. Considering that about two-thirds of flowering plants are insect pollinated, this symbiotic association is of supreme importance in the process of evolution. On the other hand, being vectors of many pathogens, insects may also have been responsible for the extinction of some species of mammals.

C Fossils are an invaluable source of information. The oldest decisive insect fossil is the Devonian Rhyniognatha Hirsti which according to researchers is around 407 to 396 million years old. The Rhyniognatha Hirsti, as seen from the fossil, possessed dicondylic mandibles, a characteristic found in winged insects, and this suggests that at that time the wings may have already evolved.

D The first complete insect was discovered in 2012 in the Strud environment from the Bois des Mouches Formation in Upper Famennian. This insect belonged to the late Devonian period, which existed approximately 382-359 million years ago. The orthopteroid mouthparts are a clear indication of an omnivorous diet.

E A team of researchers, Bernard Misof from the Koenig Museum in Bonn, BGI’s Xin Zhou in Shenzhen, China, and Karl Kjer from Rutgers University in New Brunswick, were part of the project, 1KITE. The findings of the team were published in ‘Science’, in the 7th November issue. The data was voluminous. Insects are the most species-rich creatures in the ecosystem. The 1KITE program must have required highly efficient software to process all the information. “Very few software programs could even load our data without crashing. Insects are so abundant that, in terrestrial ecosystems, they consume more in terms of biomass than vertebrates do,” said Kjer. Kjer mentions the remarkable existence of insects among land animals and its influence in shaping terrestrial life on earth. Except for penguins which may not need insects for food in the cold polar regions, the evolution of every other living being has perhaps been influenced by insects.

F According to a new timeline, the origin of insects is likely to have taken place in the Early Ordovician Period, and their appearance is similar to the first land plants in existence. The suggestion that insects have influenced the evolution of other creatures on land is based on such observations about the diversification of insects. In the wake of the Permian mass extinction, a variety of termites and cockroaches, much like the ones we see today, could have evolved some 252 million years ago.

G Referring to the complete metamorphosis the subclass of insects including butterflies and beetles have undergone, Kjer states that actual insect diversity emerged only after the appearance of Holometabola. Holometabolous species of insects are equipped with specialised adaptation skills in different stages of their life cycle. The larvae of this insect are enabled to feed and conceal themselves. Adult insects can mate, reproduce and disperse. This feature explains their remarkable ability in behavioural and physiological adaptation.

H It may seem astounding that these tiny creatures have such an important role to play in the evolution of the planet. As Kjer says, “Insects did just about everything first. They were the first to form social societies, farm, and sing.” Sadly, humans tend to ignore these beautiful creatures as nothing more than pests.

Questions 1-6

Reading Passage 1 has eight paragraphs A-H.

Which paragraph contains the following information?

Select the correct cell in the matrix.

  A B C D E F G H
1 insects being pioneers in several areas                
2 importance of a particular period in studying fossilized insects                
3 the significance of a specific species in the diversification of insects                
4 a terrestrial creature that may not be associated with insects                
5 internal body component indicates the presence of a mobility tool                

6 mention of a type of relationship that could benefit as well as damage survival

               

Questions 7-11

Complete the summary below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer.
Write the correct answer in the gap.

Insect records have fossils found from the Lower Devonian Period that existed approximately 7___________ ago. Surviving 8 ___________ , insects evolved into the modern insect orders of the Triassic Era. Through the course of evolution, insects have responded to environmental challenges by quick adaptation with a 9 ___________ productive ratio. The oldest insect fossil suggests the evolution of 10 _____________ . 
A recent discovery of the 11 ____________ confirms its existence in the Late Devonian Period, displaying body parts that describe food habits. 

Questions 12-13

Answer the questions. Write ONE WORD ONLY from the passage in each gap.

12 What publication contained vast findings of a research team? 
13 What features of early terrestrial insects and plants are compared by a new timeline? 

Answer for IELTS general reading exercise 2 section 1

Questions 1-6

Reading Passage 1 has eight paragraphs (A-H). Which paragraph contains the following information?

1 H

Explanation: Paragraph H: "Insects did just about everything first. They were the first to form social societies, farm, and sing

2 A

Explanation: Paragraph A: The Jurassic period has been a significant source of information because as many as 150 important sites with beetle fossils have been discovered, most of these located in Eastern Europe and North Asia.

3 G

Explanation: Paragraph G: Kjer states that actual insect diversity emerged only after the appearance of Holometabola

4 E

Explanation: Paragraph E: Except for penguins which may not need insects for food in the cold polar regions, the evolution of every other living being has perhaps been influenced by insects.

5 C

Explanation: Paragraph C: The Rhyniognatha Hirsti, as seen from the fossil, possessed dicondylic mandibles, a characteristic found in winged insects and this suggests that at that time the wings may have already evolved 

6 B

Explanation: Paragraph B: Considering that about two-thirds of flowering plants are insect pollinated this symbiotic association is of supreme importance in the process of evolution. On the other hand, being vectors of many pathogens, insects may also have been responsible for the extinction of some species of mammals

Questions 7-11

Complete the summary: Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage in each gap

7 400 million years (or) Four hundred million years

Explanation: Paragraph A: Records of insect fossils go back about 400 million years to the lower Devonian period

8 mass extinctions

Explanation: Paragraph A: The Insect orders of modern times which were survivors of the mass extinctions evolved to the Triassic Era

9 high

Explanation: Paragraph B: Insect evolution is characterised by rapid adaptation with high rates of fecundity due to specific pressures employed by the environment.

Fecundity means productivity or fertility.

10 wings (or) winged insects

Explanation: Paragraph C: The oldest decisive insect fossil is the Devonian Rhyniognatha Hirsti which according to researchers is around 407 to 396 million years old. The Rhyniognathirsti, as seen from the fossil possessed dicondylic mandibles, a characteristic found in winged insects and this suggests that at that time the wings may have already evolved.

11 first complete insect

Explanation: Paragraph D: The first complete insect was discovered in 2012. indication of an omnivorous diet. The orthopteroid mouthparts are a clear

Questions 12-13

Answer the questions. Write ONE WORD ONLY from the passage in each gap.

12 science

Explanation: Paragraph E: The findings of the team were published in Science, in the 7th November issue. The data was voluminous

13 appearance

Explanation: Paragraph F: According to a new timeline, the origin of insects is likely to have taken place in the Early Ordovician Period, and their appearance is similar to the first land plants in existence

Also check,

IELTS General Reading exercise 2- section 2

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Kanan Intl EdTech Inc

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India Headquarters

Kanan International Pvt. Ltd.

D-wing, 2nd Floor, Trident Complex, Ellora Park Vadiwadi Road, Vadodara, Gujarat 390007

IT/ Digital Campus

Chennai Office

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About Kanan International

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Copyright © 2022 KANAN INT EDTECH INC. All rights reserved.