Free IELTS General Reading Practice Test 2- Section 3 (28-40 questions)

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SECTION 3
Read and answer the questions Q.28-40

READING PASSAGE 3
You should spend about 20 minutes on questions 28-40, which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.

EMBRYONIC STEM CELL RESEARCH 

A Human embryonic stem cells (HES) are presently discussed not only by the biologists who discovered them but also by the medical professionals, media, ethicists, governments and politicians. There are several reasons for the same. These ‘supercells’ have major clinical potential in tissue repair. Proponents are of the view that stem cells represent the future relief or cure for a broad range of common disabilities. This will be by way of substitution of faulty cells in a patient’s body by transplantation of HES cell-derived equivalents which would restore normal function.

B Two types of stem cells can be distinguished. Embryonic stem (ES) cells can only be derived from preimplantation embryos and have a confirmed capability to develop cells of all tissues of the adult organism. These are termed as pluripotent.  Adult stem cells are to be found in a variety of tissues in the foetus and after birth and are, under normal conditions, more specialized with an essential function in tissue replacement and repair, and so these are termed as multipotent.

C In 1998, three individual sets of research findings related to the isolation and potential use of human embryonic stem cells were reported by scientists. Two of the 1998 reports were published by autonomous teams of scientists who had accomplished the identification, separation and culture of human embryonic stem cells and human embryonic germ cells. Propitious research has also been conducted with adult stem cells. A well-known example of the use of adult stem cells is bone marrow transplantation.

D A parliamentary committee set up to review the rules governing stem cell research has come to the conclusion that researchers should continue to have access to human embryos for the foreseeable future. At present, there are about four hundred thousand human embryos in the freezers of in vitro fertilization clinics. Many are destined to be thawed and discarded and consequently die. It is a genuine moral dilemma, but science offers a way to bring something substantially beneficial from a defective situation. The biological parents of these embryos could allow them to die, or they could consent to donate the embryos for research that someday might benefit patients with incurable diseases. This is a benign purpose, one that promotes both human health and perceptivity.

E We are undeniably on the edge of a significant breakthrough in stem cell technology. Some clinical trials have already started using animal stem cells as these cell studies are very promising. Embryonic stem cells present umpteen medical possibilities. These cells are undifferentiated, which means they can be used in all parts of the body. They are enabled to cure hundreds of diseases with the utilization of multiple cells that can be created from them. Stem cells may also hold the potential to replace cells lost in many other devastating diseases that currently have no sustainable cures. Today, donated tissues and organs are often used in place of damaged tissue, but the need for transplantable tissues and organs far outweighs the supply at hand. If they can be directed to differentiate into specific cell types, stem cells offer the possibility of a renewable source of replacement cells and tissues to treat diseases including Parkinson’s disease, stroke, heart disease, diabetes, spinal cord damage, some forms of blindness and several other health issues effectively and economically.

F However, the use of HES cells is highly contentious because these are procured from human preimplantation embryos. Because these embryos are destroyed during the process of harvesting embryonic cells, it makes the research unpopular with those who believe human life begins at conception and that this life is being destroyed. Though the embryos that are used for in vitro fertilization come from undesirable types, critics still argue that these embryos are already human beings. Despite this, scientific research in stem cells continues. Using embryos as a source of surplus or reserve cells will always be far more controversial than using an adult tissue, or perhaps cells from umbilical cord following birth, and investors will aspire to reduce unnecessary risk to both, the projects they fund, and to their own organisations by association.

G Coming to achievements in this area, although Embryonic Stem Cell Research seems to offer scientific headways, this is not always the reality, as seen on some occasions. There have been reports about cases where fatal brain cells were injected into brain cells of patients with Parkinson’s disease and manifestations of head-jerking, twisting and the like were seen. Also, drugs will have to be administered to people with embryonic stem cells for the rest of their lives to prevent rejection of the tissues.

H The pursuit and creation of knowledge through scientific research offer immense intellectual rewards for researchers while also performing an important social function. The progress of science has transformed our lives in unpredictable ways. Whether stem cell research will have a similar effect, is yet to be determined, but the promise is so great that it seems wise to consider seriously how to promote such research in a manner that is sensitive to public sensibilities, not excluding the morals and ethics. Public conversations about research and use of human stem cells are well underway.

Questions 28-34

The text in section 3 has eight paragraphs, A-H.
Choose the correct heading for each of the paragraphs, B-H, and move it into the gap.

Example: A - medical breakthrough becoming a point of discussion in various circles

Stem cells classified
Independent studies are more successful
Studies conducted in stem cell research
Expecting a fruitful or an unavailing outcome of current actions
A medical breakthrough becoming a point of discussion in various circles
Huge potential in treating incurable diseases
Denying a possible life raises controversies
Not completely flawless
Adult stem cell replacement finds more supporters
A sensitive issue needs to be dealt with carefully
Scientific advancements have revolutionised our lives

28
29
30
31
32
33
34

Questions 35-38

Classify the following advances or consequences as those that
A have already taken place
B are currently taking place
C will take place in future
Choose the correct letter A, B or C.

35 Replacing injured tissues with donated tissues
 
36 Experiments on animal stem cells
 
37 Adverse effects of stem cell implantation

38 Solution to many incurable diseases

Questions 39-40

Answer the questions below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write the correct answer in the gap.

39 What term describes stem cells that possess the capacity to evolve in any tissue of an adult human body? 
40 What component of the human body has been transplanted using adult stem cells? 

Also check:

IELTS General Reading Practice test 2- sample answer 

Attempt

IELTS general reading practice test 3

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Kanan Intl EdTech Inc

Ph-1, 220, George Street, Toronto Ontario, Canada M5A 2N1

India Headquarters

Kanan International Pvt. Ltd.

D-wing, 2nd Floor, Trident Complex, Ellora Park Vadiwadi Road, Vadodara, Gujarat 390007

IT/ Digital Campus

Chennai Office

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About Kanan International

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Copyright © 2022 KANAN INT EDTECH INC. All rights reserved.