IELTS Reading Exercise 1- Section 1 (Question 1-14)

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SECTION 1

Read and answer the questions Q.1-14

READING PASSAGE 1

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1–14, which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.

FUTURE GLOBAL WATER CRISIS

Water scarcity takes place when natural water resources of the world are not able to meet the demands of the rising population. International food policy research institute has reported that more than half of the world population is likely to be under acute water scarcity by 2050.
The current scenario is that the increase in the freshwater supply is falling short of the needs of the growing population. Water scarcity is increasing all over the world at an alarming rate. More than one-fifth of the global GDP comes from areas of water scarcity where populations are at risk. There is confrontation between governments, corporations and the local population due to competition over water. Water riots are breaking out in some cities and countries are threatening each other with revisions of water sharing treaties.
The future scenario is frightening. Almost 2 billion people will face extreme water scarcity by 2025. Most of the water on earth is saline and found in the oceans. Freshwater, which supports human beings, animal life and agriculture, is found in other sources. 30% of this is groundwater, stored deep underground in aquifers, 69% is stored in glaciers and polar caps, leaving only 1% as surface water in lakes, rivers and stream. Glaciers are already shrinking and altering hydrological systems, affecting human life downstream. Climate change due to indiscriminate industrial growth and reckless use of fossil fuels will affect water quality due to higher temperatures, higher sediments and pollutants. Worsening the situation further, fertilizers and pesticides have given us a huge increase in yields but have also lead to massive usage of water per acre compared to traditional agriculture systems. Apart from extensive wastage of water, new farming methods and equipment also lead to water pollution. Furthermore, as people concentrate around large cities, high demand gets concentrated in geographic areas that cannot sustain supply.
Water scarcity leads to serious problems. Almost 70% of the global fresh water is used for agriculture. Water scarcity can cause global conflicts involving two or more countries competing for a common source of freshwater. The world population is expected to reach 9.6 billion by 2050 and food production will not be able to meet the increasing demand due to the shortage of water resources. The United Nations has projected political and social unrest, civil wars and terrorism resulting from food shortages unless there is a 60% increase in food production by 2050. At present, 1.1 billion people lack access to clean water. This is about 15% of the world population. Lack of access to clean water can lead to vulnerable populations getting water-borne diseases. Educational and economic opportunities can reduce considerably, especially in developing countries where children spend a lot of time in obtaining water from distant sources.
There are, however, solutions to avoid this gloomy scenario. Governments can recharge groundwater by projects of infiltrating or injecting excess surface water into underground aquifers. Restoration of watersheds and wetlands as well as the practice of green infrastructure will help in reducing impervious surfaces. Water can be treated, used and reused. They can implement strict laws to control pollution and wastage of water, especially by water-guzzling industries.
A zero liquid discharge system can be implemented where water is used and reused without discharging it. Non-potable or greywater can be used for washing, flushing toilets, landscaping, and industrial processes. Water available in abundance in the ocean or groundwater with high salt content can be subjected to desalination to convert it into drinking water. However, this process uses a lot of energy.
There are uncertainties in the data we have on climate change and its impact on water resource management. Awareness, monitoring and understanding of the interrelationships between population, climate change and water availability will go a long way in resolving this huge problem. For better water security, we have to make changes in lifestyle, food habits and actions that affect our environment. As we continue to exploit surface and groundwater sources, it is now time to contemplate and design methods to replace some, if not all the renewable resources we use from nature.
The human race has demonstrated a great ability to adapt in the face of adversity by rising to overcome huge challenges. It is still not too late to take the required steps needed to ensure that everyone has water security, and there is peace and happiness in the world.

Questions 1-5

Answer the questions. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage in each gap.

1 Which issue has become the reason for dispute between nations and the local population? 
2 Which two opportunities for children in developing countries are likely to be minimized due to water scarcity? 
3 Apart from restoring watersheds and wetlands, what else can help water retention? 
4 What system can be introduced to make water reused multiple times? 
5 What must be returned, to the greatest possible extent, to their original source? 

Questions 6-10

Complete the summary using the list of words. Choose the correct word and move it into the gap.

Water scarcity is increasing day by day. By 2025, almost 2 billion people will face 6___________  of it. Ocean water, which constitutes the majority of the proportion of water on the earth, 7___________  whereas 30% of water stored deep underground in 8 ________ is freshwater. Climate change will also affect water quality not only due to indiscriminate industrial growth but also due to 9 _________ use of fossil fuel. As the population in big cities gets 10____________ , the demand for water also rises, which the 

Supplying geographic area cannot sustain.

shortage aquifers dense
excess crowded utmost
contains salt heedless saline solution
core random  

Question 11-14

Choose YES if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer of the passage, choose NO  if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer, or choose NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this.

11 The areas facing water scarcity provide less than 20% of world GDP. 
12 By increasing food production by more than 60%, the world will be free from civil war and terrorism. 
13 Ocean water or salty groundwater can be desalinated to make it drinkable. 
14 Better lifestyle and food habits will ensure water security for the future. 

IELTS reading exercise 1 section 1 answers

Questions 1-5

Answer the questions. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage in each
gap.

1 water sharing (or) competition over water

Explanation: Paragraph 2: There is confrontation between governments, corporations and the local population due to competition over water. Water countries are threatening each other with revisions of water sharing treaties

2 educational and economic

Explanation: Paragraph 4: Educational and economic opportunities can reduce considerably especially in developing countries where children spend a lot of time collecting water from distant sources.

3 green infrastructure

Explanation: Paragraph 5: Restoration of watersheds and wetlands as well as the practice of green infrastructure in reducing impervious surfaces

4 Zero liquid discharge

Explanation: Paragraph 6:... zero liquid discharge system can be installed where water is used and reused without discharging it.

5 renewable resources

Explanation: Paragraph 7: As we continue to exploit surface and groundwater sources, it is now time to contemplate and design methods to replace some, if not all the renewable resources we use from nature.

Questions 6-10

Complete the summary using the list of words. Choose the correct word and move it into the gap

6 shortage

Explanation: Paragraph 3: Almost 2 billion people will face extreme water scarcity by 2025.

7 contains salt

Explanation: Paragraph 3: Most of the water on earth is saline and found in the oceans.

8 aquifers

Explanation: Paragraph 3: 30% of this is groundwater, stored deep underground in aquifers..

9 heedless

Explanation: Paragraph 3: Climate change due to indiscriminate industrial growth and reckless use of fossil fuels will affect water quality due to higher temperatures, higher sediments and pollutants

10 dense

Explanation: Paragraph 3: Furthermore, as people concentrate around large cities, high demand gets concentrated in geographic areas that cannot sustain supply

Question 11-14

Choose YES if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer of the passage, choose NO if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer, or choose NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this.

11 NO

Explanation: Paragraph 2: More than a fifth of the global GDP comes from areas of water scarcity where populations are… More than a fifth implies more than 20%

12 NOT GIVEN

Explanation: Paragraph 4: The United Nations has projected political and social unrest, civil war and terrorism resulting from food shortage unless there is a 60% increase in food production by 2050

The possibility of civil war and terrorism due to food shortage is mentioned but it does not imply that there will be no civil war or terrorism in the world if food production is increased. Hence, Not Given

13 YES

Explanation: Paragraph 6: Water available in abundance in the ocean or groundwater with high salt content can be subjected to desalination to convert it into drinking water

14 NOT GIVEN

Explanation: Paragraph 7: For better water security we have to make changes in our lifestyle, food habits that affect our environment.

This does not mean that a better lifestyle and food will ensure water security.

Also check,

IELTS Reading exercise 1- section 2

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Kanan Intl EdTech Inc

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India Headquarters

Kanan International Pvt. Ltd.

D-wing, 2nd Floor, Trident Complex, Ellora Park Vadiwadi Road, Vadodara, Gujarat 390007

IT/ Digital Campus

Chennai Office

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About Kanan International

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