Roman tunnels Reading Answers

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In this article, you can check for your Roman tunnels reading answers, if you have attempted the Cambridge 16 test 4. This verification will help you in gaining knowledge about the question types.

If you are done with checking your Roman tunnels reading answers, you can try the extra questions given in this article. The reading passage will be given along with the Roman Tunnels reading answers with explanation

With the given Roman tunnels reading answers, you can evaluate your performance and your speed in answering the questions. With persistent practice and question type understanding, you can easily identify the Roman tunnels IELTS reading answers. The Roman tunnels reading passages are ideal for practising as it is a repeated IELTS reading question.

The Roman tunnels reading passage is all about how the tunnels were constructed and used by the Romans in the ancient days. You will read the passage to answer the question given below. In this article the Roman tunnels IELTS reading answers for the following IELTS reading question types are given. 

  • IELTS reading multiple choice questions
  • IELTS reading true false not given questions
  • IELTS reading summary completion 

7 thoughts on the passage “Roman tunnels” significance

Knowing the importance of this Roman tunnel reading passage will help you in understanding the passage better and give the Roman tunnels reading answers with accuracy. 

  • The Roman tunnels reading passage is all about how the ancient Romans constructed their tunnels using the shaft method and counter excavation methods.
  • These Roman tunnels reading answers with location are taken from the Cambridge 16 Test 4 passage. 
  • The Roman tunnels reading answers with explanation will guide you in identifying the answering strategy for the particular question type. 
  • The passage is commonly used for the reading preparation due to its language difficulty and the vocabulary used. 
  • Spotting the answers inside the passage is now easier as the Roman tunnels reading answers with location are given. 
  • Solving the IELTS reading question types given in this passage is easier, if you are having the skimming, scanning and paraphrasing skills. 
  • The Roman tunnels reading answers with explanation pdf is given below for your reference. 

Before attempting to write the Roman tunnels reading answers, check the IELTS reading tips

Click here to get the Roman tunnels reading pdf

IELTS reading passage - Roman tunnels

You are given the Roman tunnel IELTS reading passage. You will be reading a passage and answer the question with the text from the passage. Later you can verify your answers with the Roman tunnels reading answers with explanation. 

Roman tunnels

The tunnels were constructed by the Persians, to provide a reliable water supply to the human settlements in the dry areas of present-day Iran. Quant method of tunnel construction was introduced in the early first millennium BCE where the posts are placed in a straight line over a hill and vertical shafts are dug at regular intervals into the grounds, thus ensuring the route of the tunnel. The earth between the ends of the shaft are removed by the workers in the underground to create a tunnel. The shafts are used to remove the excavated soil to the ground and also provide ventilation during the work.  
The knowledge about the quant method of constructing tunnels for water supply for agriculture was transferred by the Persians to the Romans. Vertical shafts dug with a 30 and 60 metre interval were used in the Roman quant tunnels. To aid in moving in and out of the shafts, they are equipped with footholds and handholds and wooden or stone lids are used to close the shafts. Romans hung a plumb line at the top of the shaft with a help of the rod placed across it to check whether the shaft is vertical and assured the weight is hanging in the middle of the shaft. It is also used to identify the tunnel slope and to determine the shaft depth. The Claudius tunnel was built in 41 CE for draining the Fucine Lake in Central Italy is 5-6 Kilometres long with a 122 metres deep shaft. It took approximately 30,000 employees to complete the tunnel in 11 years. Remarkably, the ancient roads are still used today for transportation. Mineral extraction tunnels were also built. 
Counter-excavation tunnel construction was the second tunnel building methodology, originated in the 6th century BCE, where tunnels were built from both the ends. This method is adopted to cut through the mountains where quants implementation is not a practical alternative. As both ends of the tunnel have to meet at the center of the mountain, a great plan and advanced planning is required for implementing this method. Whenever there is a chance of geological problems or the paths have been deviated, direction adjustments have to be made. The advancing direction of the tunnel is constantly checked, for example light penetration from the mouth of the tunnel will be looked back and if any deviations are found corrections will be made. At times there is a possibility of having large deviations causing one end to be unused. The Saldae aqueduct system located in modern-day Algeria, is built by the Romans, is 428-meters long and the workers failed to meet the ends in the mountain. An inscription written on the tunnel explains how they missed and how it was later altered using a lateral link between the corridors to rectify the error. 
The Romans used the counter-excavation method to construct tunnels for roads, in places where they encountered mountains and hills that are too high to cross. The 37-meter long and 6-meter high Furlo Pass tunnel in Italy built in 69-79 CE is an example of counter excavation roads. Once mineral veins are located, the miners pursue building a tunnel using the shafts in the underground. An example of this type of tunnel can be found at the Dolaucothi mines in Wales, which is used for mining gold. The construction planning is simple and the routes will be determined only based on the mineral vein if the sole purpose of the tunnel is mineral extraction. 
All the Roman tunnel constructions are carefully planned and executed well. The tunnel construction method and the type of rock in the excavation area will determine the length of the time required for building the tunnel. As the quant construction method uses a straight forward approach, the work is faster than a counter-excavation method. This is because apart from excavating only from the tunnel mouth, even the shats can be used for excavation. The construction time is also affected by the type of rock. The Romans employed a technique named fire quenching, where they would heat the rock and suddenly cool it with cool water to create a crack in the hard rocks. As the tunnel progression across the hard rocks requires a lot of time, the tunnel construction takes years to complete and sometimes a decade to build a tunnel. The rate of advance through the solid rock was only 30 centimetres per day and it is indicated using the construction marks in the Roman tunnel of Bologna. In contrast, the rate of advancement in the Claudius tunnel is 1,4-metres per day. The names of the patrons who started the tunnel project and the architect names are inscripted in most of the tunnels. For example, still today you can find the inscription in the 1.4-kilometer Cevlik tunnel in Turkey. Here the tunnel starting 69 CE and the completed year 81 CE will be found. The tunnel is built to divert the floodwater from flowing into the harbours of the ancient city of Seleuceia Pieria. 

Roman tunnels IELTS reading questions

Question (1-5)

Choose the correct letter, A - D

1. Some of the quants built by the Persians _____________ ago are still in use today. 

  1. 2800 years 
  2. 3000 years
  3. 2700 years
  4. 2400 years 

2. Counter-excavation tunnel construction was the ____________ tunnel construction methodology used by the Romans.

  1. Fifth
  2. Second
  3. First
  4. Third

3. Prior planning and construction strategy is required as the tunnel has to meet in the __________ of the mountain

  1. Top
  2. Bottom
  3. Centre
  4. None of the above

4. The Saldae aqueduct system is _____________ long

  1. 444 metres
  2. 428 metres
  3. 424 metres
  4. 448 metres

5. _______________ affects the construction time

  1. Nature of soil
  2. Nature of rocks
  3. Nature of mineral
  4. None of the above

Also check IELTS reading multiple choice questions

Question (6-9)

Do the following statements agree with the information given in the reading passage?

Write

  • TRUE                if the statement agrees with the information
  • FALSE              if the statement contradicts the information
  • NOT GIVEN      if there is no information on this in the passage

6. The knowledge about the tunnel construction was transferred from Persians to Romans.

7. The roads constructed by counter-excavation methods are not used in today's modern transportation. 
8. Romans tunnel construction knowledge was spread world wide.
9. Heating and sudden cooling of rocks are done creating a crack in the rock. 

Also check IELTS reading true false not given tips here

Question (10-13)

Complete the summary below.

Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer

Tunnels were originally constructed by 10.  ____________ to supply water to the human settlements. Later the knowledge about the 11 ________________________  of tunnel was transferred to the Romans. After using the Shaft tunnel construction method, the Romans started using the 12. ____________ construction method. This method was used to build 13________  where crossing the mountains is difficult. 
Also check IELTS reading summary completion 

Roman Tunnels IELTS reading answers with explanations

After answering the IELTS reading questions, you must check your answers to evaluate your performance level. Here we have given you the Roman tunnels reading answers along with explanations to aid you in your preparation for the reading test. 

(Note: The text in italics is from the reading passage and shows the location from where the answer is taken or inferred. The text in the regular font explains the answer in detail.)

1. C. 2700 years

Explanation: The water from the hilltop will flow to the canal, once the tunnel construction is completed and will supply water for human usage. Remarkably, some quants used today were built by the Persians 2,700 years ago.

2. B. second

Explanation: Counter-excavation tunnel construction was the second tunnel building methodology, originated in the 6th century BCE, where tunnels were built from both the ends.

3. C. center

Explanation: As both ends of the tunnel have to meet at the center of the mountain, a great plan and advanced planning is required for implementing this method.

4. B 428 meters

Explanation : The Saldae aqueduct system located in modern-day Algeria, is built by the Romans, is 428-meters long and the workers failed to meet the ends in the mountain.

5. B Nature of rocks

Explanation: This is because apart from excavating only from the tunnel mouth, even the shats can be used for excavation. The construction time is also affected by the type of rock.

6. True 

Explanation: The knowledge about the quant method of constructing tunnels for water supply for agriculture was transferred by the Persians to the Romans.

7. False

Explanation: Remarkably, the ancient roads are still used today for transportation. Mineral extraction tunnels were also built. 

8. Not given

Explanation: No information about the knowledge transfer to rest of the world is given

9. True

Explanation: The Romans employed a technique named fire quenching, where they would heat the rock and suddenly cool it with cool water to create a crack in the hard rocks.

10. Persians

Explanation: The tunnels were constructed by the Persians, to provide a reliable water supply to the human settlements in the dry areas of present-day Iran. 

11. Quant method

Explanation: The knowledge about the quant method of constructing tunnels for water supply for agriculture was transferred by the Persians to the Romans.

12. Counter excavation tunnel 

Explanation: Counter-excavation tunnel construction was the second tunnel building methodology, originated in the 6th century BCE,

13. Road

Explanation: The Romans used the counter-excavation method to construct tunnels for roads, in places where they encountered mountains and hills that are too high to cross.

Check the Other Reading Passages

Click to get the other reading passages and answers.

Conclusion

We hope you were able to find all the “Roman tunnels reading answers”. If not, keep practicing more practice questions to improve your reading skills. Always believe you can easily crack the IELTS test by having consistent practice.

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Global Headquarters

Kanan Intl EdTech Inc

229, Yonge Street Suite 450 Toronto Ontario, Canada M5B 1N9

India Headquarters

Kanan International Pvt. Ltd.

D-wing, 2nd Floor, Trident Complex, Ellora Park Vadiwadi Road, Vadodara, Gujarat 390007

IT/ Digital Campus

Chennai Office

132, Habibullah Rd, Satyamurthy Nagar, T. Nagar, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600017

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About Kanan International

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Copyright © 2022 KANAN INT EDTECH INC. All rights reserved.