IELTS academic reading matching sentence endings

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Table of Contents

  1. IELTS academic reading matching sentence endings
  2. IELTS academic reading matching sentence endings- Strategies & tips to solve
  3. Common Problems faced by students in solving matching sentence endings
  4. Skills Required to solve matching sentence endings
  5. Matching Sentence Endings skill building exercise 1
  6. Matching Sentence Endings skill building exercise 2
  7. Matching Sentence Endings skill building exercise 3
  8. Answers for skill building exercises
  9. Conclusion

IELTS academic reading matching sentence endings require you to complete a list of incomplete statements with correct endings from the given list. Here your ability to understand the main concept of reading passage and interpretation skills in finding the correct sentence endings are tested. 

In IELTS academic reading matching sentence endings, you will be given the first half of the sentence and the remaining sentence has to be completed by choosing the correct option from the list of headings given below. Read the text and use the keywords from the passage to choose the correct answer. 

This is one of the  IELTS academic reading question types where students struggle to answer and consume most of the IELTS academic reading section’s overall time. We have put together some suggestions and strategies to help you tackle IELTS academic reading matching sentence endings so that you can solve it at ease.   

IELTS academic reading matching sentence endings- Strategies & tips to solve

These IELTS academic reading matching sentence endings tips and strategies will guide you in answering this question type at ease. 

  • This question set requires you to complete a list of incomplete statements with correct endings from a list.
  • Read the incomplete question statement and judge what it expresses, e.g. cause, consequence, purpose or contrast
  • Go through the list of endings. You can see some options are unsuitable grammatically and contextually, i.e. they do not make any sense. It is safe to eliminate them right away.
  • Now, identify the keyword(s) in the question statement and look for words or phrases with similar meanings in the passage. Read this portion of the passage and find the information that completes the meaning. Select the ending that conveys the same meaning.
  • Remember, there may be some endings that contain keywords or information from this part. But, they may be only partially correct or irrelevant.
  • Also remember, the question statements appear in progressive order, but the options are jumbled.
  • Before you look at the endings,try to guess how the sentence will end.
  • The question at the first takes more time because more options are given to workout for. But when you fix the correct answer for a question1 the upcoming options will be reduced, thus making it easier to find the options.
  • By only matching the words you can’t form the complete sentence so don't just pick the words matching.
  • Instead of finding exactly the same words, find out whether the examinant would have used synonyms and paraphrases.
  • Begin looking for suitable matches now. Because of their grammatical structure or meaning, many possibilities will be incorrect.

Following these IELTS academic reading matching sentence endings tips & strategies and doing a lot of reading preparation and vocabulary practice is the greatest approach to increase your IELTS reading score.

Common Problems faced by students in solving matching sentence endings

  • Trying to complete the answer by logic or by using grammar. It is a test for understanding the given text.
  • Forgetting to match incomplete sentences with the endings instead of trying the endings to match with the text.
  • Many people waste time in finding the exact matching words in a sentence.
  • Failing to ensure the grammatical structure of two half haves of the sentences.

Skills Required to solve matching sentence endings

  • Finding synonyms & paraphrasing.
  • Skimming.
  • Understanding the grammatical structures.
  • Visualizing keywords.
  • Taking the theme of the passage to make a prediction.

Also read: IELTS academic reading tips

Matching Sentence Endings skill building exercise 1

Answer questions 1-5 which are based on the reading passage below.

The Penny Black

In 1840, the United Kingdom introduced the penny black, the first adhesive postage stamp issued anywhere in the world.For many years the postal service in the U.K. had been a very expensive service for ordinary people to use. The costs were prohibitive, a single letter sometimes costing a working person’s full day’s wage. The postal system also had many strange anomalies, such as certain categories of mail going free (and therefore being paid for by the charges on others), newspapers going for nothing, most mail being paid for by the addressee rather than by the sender, and so on.
There were moves for postal reform for many years, until eventually these moves started gathering some force through the attention of many, amongst whom Rowland Hill is the best known, and Robert Wallace, MP for Greenock, was instrumental.

The story is long and involved, but eventually, The Penny Postage Bill was passed by Parliament on 17 August 1839. Some basic elements of the plan were the lowering of postage rates for basic letters to one penny, the removal of certain idiosyncrasies, that prepayment would become normal, and the availability of printed envelopes, letter sheets, and labels to show prepayment. The “labels” were the penny black and twopence blue.

A bookseller and printer from Dundee, James Chalmers, holds a strong claim to be the actual inventor of the adhesive postage stamp. He is said to have been interested in postal reform from about 1822, and to have printed samples of his idea for printed gummed labels in August 1834. It seems that, although Hill also presented the idea of adhesive stamps, he was probably keener on the use of standard prepaid letter folders, such as were issued in 1840 using a design by William Mulready.
The new stamps went on sale on 1st May 1840 and were valid for postage from 6th May 1840 (although some were used during the 1st-5th May period). The Mulreadies were issued at the same time. Public reaction to these new items was quite the opposite to Rowland Hill’s expectations. The labels were well-received and admired; the Mulready design was lambasted and ridiculed. Initial supplies of the stamps were rushed through the printing and distribution process, but supplies soon caught up with requirements.

The stamps were printed in sheets of 240, engraved on steel plates, on gummed paper with a single small crown watermark on each stamp. Eleven different printing plates were used, and it is possible in almost every case to work out which plate any individual stamp was printed from by a few characteristics. Things like the positioning of the corner letters within their squares, the presence of the “O flaw”, which rays of the stars in the upper corners are broken at what points, and so on, can point to a correct plate identification, but more specialised literature is required in order to do this. Some plates are scarcer than others, plate 11 being the scarcest.

Every penny black stamp has letters in the lower two corners. These simply identify what sheet position the stamp occupied. When the printing plates were produced the lower squares were blank, and the letters were punched in by hand. The left square letter shows which horizontal row the stamp was in – the first row being A, the second B, and so on down to the twentieth row with T. The right square letter indicates the vertical column, again with A for the first column, B, C, and so on across to L for the last (twelfth) column. It should be noted therefore that each letter combination is just as common or as scarce as any other.

There were 68,158,080 penny blacks issued (yes, 68 million!), and even with only a 2% survival rate, there are likely to be about 1.3 million still in existence. The survival rate may well be considerably higher than 2%, as it should be remembered that in 1840 the use of envelopes was unusual, most letters being written, folded, and sealed with sealing wax; this meant that whenever a letter was filed in a lawyer’s office, bank, etc., the whole thing would be kept – letter and outer cover including the adhesive stamp.

From the collector's perspective, the physical condition of the stamp – any fault such as a thin, tear, crease, or stain will lower the value, and the number, size, and regularity of the margins make a big difference to value. The stamps were not perforated and had to be separated using scissors or a knife. As there was only about 1mm between one stamp and another, it was very easy to stray just a little and cut into the printed design of the stamp. A stamp with two full margins and perhaps a couple of other part margins is about average. Collectors will pay higher prices for examples with four good, wide, and even margins.

Questions 1-5 

Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A–G, below.

Write the correct letter, A-G, as your answer to each question. 

1 After reforms, most mails was

2 Each steel printing plate was

3 Every penny black was

4 Putting a letter in an envelope was

5 Keeping the borders of each stamp was

A Unusual in 1840.

B Able to print sheets of 240 stamps.

C Paid for by the sender.

D Very difficult to achieve.

E Very expensive to send.

F Designed with two letters in the bottom corners.

G Quickly accepted.


Check answer for this exercise

Check more IELTS academic reading matching sentence endings exercise with answers  

Matching Sentence Endings skill building exercise 2

Answer questions 1-5 which are based on the reading passage below.

Music Piracy

In 1999, a nineteen-year-old student decided he wanted a fast and efficient way to share his favourite songs with his friends. But, he didn’t just want to make compilation tapes on cassettes. He wanted to do the sharing via the computer. The result was Napster. A file-sharing community that allowed Shawn Fanning and his friends to share all the mp3 files they ripped from their CD collections with each other…and 60 million other users. The rest would be history if it were not for one small issue – what they were doing was illegal.

At first, that stopped no one. Napster clones with marginally different peer-to-peer client-server architectures appeared. Gnutella networks, eDonkey, AudioGalaxy, Kazaa, FastTrack, Grokster, Limewire, Morpheus, BearShare, and countless others emerged totalling hundreds of millions of users sharing billions of megabytes of files. Add to that Usenet binaries and ICQ/IRC channels through which music, video, software, and other copyright materials had already been shared illicitly for years. This was still years before the advent of BitTorrent networks.

Figures have shown repeatedly that the rise of Napster and its ilk had actually caused a resurgence in lacklustre CD sales. Many users download lots of tracks but then buy the complete album on CD for the sake of having something more tangible to own. The whole file-sharing culture has also, it is claimed, boosted interest in music in much the same way that video piracy in the 1980s saw more people going to the cinema.

Nevertheless, it was inevitable that the copyright holders were going to be a little less than pleased with P2P. With support and advocacy from certain artists themselves, most notably Metallica’s Lars Ulrich and Dr Dre, the record industry began to fight this cultural sea change. Napster was shut down under court order, and many of the other early P2P systems followed. However, others sprang up to replace them almost as quickly as others were knocked down. The development of Bit Torrent has added a whole new approach to file sharing veiled with a layer of legitimacy.

In the meantime, more savvy agencies, namely Apple Corp and a Russian site going by the name of Allofmp3.com, as well as a few other innovators, had latched on to the fact that mp3 downloads, despite the fears of the wider industry would be the way forward.

The difference between these paid-for downloads (Allofmp3 ′s dubious international legality aside) and the original incarnation of Napster is that users had to pay and royalties were apparently passed on to the record companies, and one would hope, the artists themselves. Ultimately, the Napster name was resurrected as a paid-for service endorsed by the record industry and others followed suit.

Questions 1-5

Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-H, from the box below.

Write the correct letter, A-H, as your answer to each question.

1 The desire to share songs quickly

2 The popularity of Napster and similar services 

3 People buy CDs because

4 The record companies 

5 Apple Corp and Allofmp3

A believed in the success of mp3 downloads.

B resulted in the compilation of CDs.

C gave birth to the concept of file sharing on computers.

D they want to have something for themselves.

E were not in support of P2P sharing.

F they are popular.

G resulted in revived sales of CDs.

H were happy with the rising interest in music.

Check answer for this exercise 

Attempt this free IELTS academic reading matching sentence endings mock test 

Matching Sentence Endings skill building exercise 3

Answer questions 1-6 which are based on the reading passage below.

COMMERCIAL DOG BREEDING 

With increasing demands for exotic dog breeds, breeding of dogs has become a lucrative business. Those engaged in this business often claim that they are responsible breeders, however, there is no such thing as for every puppy produced by a breeder, many animals in shelters that are waiting for adoption find it difficult to find a home. If they are in there long enough, they are euthanized. 
One major worrying factor is the practice of breeding for the sake of appearance. Although the concerned animal is not aware of its appearance, the breeder and buyer are. It is the animal that suffers due to genetic exploitation. Another cause of concern is inbreeding, which leads to life-threatening genetic defects that can be excruciatingly painful. These are more apparent in ‘purebred’ dogs. The common diseases in such animals include blindness, deafness, hip dysplasia, skin problems and heart defects. 

Also, the ‘puppy-mill’ kennels function in abysmal conditions. They generally consist of small cages constructed from wire mesh and wood or tractor-trailer cabs that are tethered to tree trunks. As a rule, female dogs breed twice a year. Once they are incapable of breeding, they are either put to death or abandoned. It has also been noticed that female dogs and their pups suffer from exposure, malnutrition and have next to no medical care. Puppies are separated from their mothers at an early age and are sold to animal brokers who transport them to the pet shops in crates. During the process, the puppies travel hundreds of miles in trailers, trucks or airplanes without enough food, water or air. 
UK’s biggest dog welfare charity, Dogs Trust, recently released a report that is the result of six months of investigation into breeding and trafficking of puppies from Eastern European countries to the UK. Apart from concerns such as risk to public health because of rabies and other related diseases, tapeworm infestation can be debilitating, although it is not found in the UK at present. Shocking footage of this investigation shows how commercial breeders, transporters and even vets in Hungary and Lithuania are abusing the EU legislation by using the Pet Travel Scheme (PETS) for the commercial importation of puppies to Great Britain.

Where pet owners are concerned, a rather disturbing trend has picked up in the past few decades. They buy puppies of Bulldogs and other high-priced pedigree animals, mainly as a novelty and status symbol. Little do the buyers realise that these puppies are ill-bred and it is very likely that they suffer from diseases because of inbreeding. According to the 2006 statistics, 287,000 such animals made an entry into America. Taking into account the increasing demand for crossbred and purebred puppies in the country, experts feel that these statistics will, in all likelihood, spiral out of control. 
In countries like India, the pet dog figures in homes have suddenly jumped from around 7 million in the year 2009 to a little over 12 million in 2014, as per the research conducted by Euromonitor. Alarmingly, there is a rising demand for Saint Bernards and Siberian Huskies. These animals that are meant to live in cold climates are trapped inside apartments that are small, hot and humid. Serious health problems are seen to be increasing in these animals. When the situation gets dire, the owners are unable to cope and abandon them on the roadside. 

It is obvious that not enough is being done to stop the trade of puppies. By the end of this year, there are chances that the EU legislation on pet travel will come into force. This will ensure that law breakers will be penalised. However, organisations like Dogs Trust and their associates, at the ports in the UK, feel that the projected changes are sadly not adequate and will not serve the purpose. 

Questions 1-6

Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-I, from the box below.

Write the correct letter, A-I, as your answer to each question.

1 Breeding of dogs for appearance is harmful 

2 Inbreeding is a major concern

3 The dogs in a puppy mill 

4 The investigation by Dogs Trust reveals 

5 The pet owners prefer high-priced animals 

6 The hot and humid Indian climate is 

A because it makes looks more important for buyers.

B unsuitable for breeds native to colder regions.

C because it interferes with their genetic code.

D are generally maltreated.

E the illegal transportation of puppies to the UK.

F because it leads to genetic disorders.

G because purebred dogs are affected by it.

H because they are considered a status symbol.

I because they are healthy.

Check answer for this exercise 

Check more IELTS academic reading matching sentence endings practice questions

Answers for skill building exercises 

  • Answers for skill building exercises-1 

The Penny Black

(Note: The text in italics is from the reading passage and shows the location from where the answer is taken or inferred. The text in regular font explains the answer in detail.)

1. C  

Explanation: Paragraph 3 -There were moves for postal reform for many years, until eventually, these moves started gathering some force … Some basic elements of the plan were the lowering of postage rates for basic letters to one penny, the removal of certain idiosyncrasies, that prepayment would become normal,..

The word ‘prepayment’ implies that postage was paid by the sender

2. B

Explanation: Paragraph 6 - The stamps were printed in sheets of 240, engraved on steel plates, 

3. F 

Explanation: Paragraph 7 - Every penny black stamp has letters in the lower two corners.

4. A  

Explanation: Paragraph 8 - … as it should be remembered that in 1840 the use of envelopes was unusual, …

5. D  

Explanation:Paragraph 9 - The stamps were not perforated and had to be separated using scissors or a knife. As there was only about 1mm between one stamp and another, it was very easy to stray just a little and cut into the printed design of the stamp.

  • Answers for skill building exercises-2

Music Piracy

(Note: The text in italics is from the reading passage and shows the location from where the answer is taken or inferred. The text in the regular font explains the answer in detail.)

1 C

Explanation: Paragraph 1- In 1999, a nineteen-year-old student decided he wanted a fast and efficient way to share his favourite songs with his friends. But, he didn’t just want to make compilation tapes on cassettes. He wanted to do the sharing via the computer. The result was Napster.

2 G

Explanation: Paragraph 3 - Figures have shown repeatedly that the rise of Napster and its ilk had actually caused a resurgence in lacklustre CD sales.

3 D

Explanation: Paragraph 3 - Many users download lots of tracks but then buy the complete album on CD for the sake of having something more tangible to own.

4 E

Explanation: Paragraph 4 - ... the record industry began to fight this cultural sea change. Napster was shut down under court order, and many of the other early P2P systems followed.

5 A

Explanation: Paragraph 5- … Apple Corp and a Russian site going by the name of Allofmp3.com,... had latched on to the fact that mp3 downloads, despite the fears of the wider industry, would be the way forward.

  • Answers for skill building exercises-3

Commercial Dog Breeding

(Note: The text in italics is from the reading passage and shows the location from where the answer is taken or inferred. The text in the regular font explains the answer in detail.)

1 C

Explanation: Paragraph 2 - One major worrying factor is the practice of breeding for the sake of appearance … and it is the animal which suffers due to genetic exploitation.

2 F

Explanation: Paragraph 2 - Another cause of concern is inbreeding, which is the cause of life-threatening genetic defects that can be excruciatingly painful.

3 D

Explanation: Paragraph 3 - Also, the ‘puppy-mill’ kennels function in abysmal conditions. They generally consist of small cages constructed from wire mesh and wood … Once they are incapable of breeding, they are either put to death or abandoned ... female dogs and their pups suffer from exposure, malnutrition and have next to no medical care.

4 E

Explanation: Paragraph 4 - UK’s biggest dog welfare charity, Dogs Trust, recently released a report that is the result of six months of investigation ... Shocking footage of this investigation shows how commercial breeders, transporters and even vets in Hungary and Lithuania are abusing the EU legislation by using the Pet Travel Scheme (PETS) for the commercial importation of puppies to Great Britain.

5 H

Explanation: Paragraph 5 - Where pet owners are concerned, a rather disturbing trend has picked up in the past few decades. They buy puppies of Bulldogs and other high-priced pedigree animals, mainly as a novelty and status symbol. 

6 B

Explanation: Paragraph 6 - In countries like India, ... Alarmingly, there is a rising demand for Saint Bernards and Siberian Huskies. These animals that are meant to live in cold climates are trapped inside apartments that are small, hot and humid. Serious health problems are seen to be increasing in these animals. 

Also check IELTS academic reading matching features 

Click the following link to practice matching sentence endings with other question types to understand how actual test works and to check the answers:

Conclusion

We believe that you've got the useful tips, strategies, and exercises explained in this article that will help you to perform well in the IELTS academic reading matching sentence endings test and will be more useful to achieve an 8+ band score in IELTS academic reading task.

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Kanan Intl EdTech Inc

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IT/ Digital Campus

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